Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Exploratory research

Exploratory examination Exploratory Exploratory examination is normally done when issue isn't all around distinguished or it has not been obviously characterized up 'til now, or its genuine scale is so far hazy. It permits the exploration individual to gather the data however much as could be expected identifying with a particular issue. Exploratory examination finishes up the best exploration structure, information assortment methodtechnique and selectionchoice of subjects, and at times it even concludesconcluderesults that the issue doesn't existbe present. Exploratory examination is very informalcasual, when it depending on auxiliary investigates, for example, auditing accessible writing, information, or subjective methodologies, for example, casual conversations with consumerscustomers, workers, the board or competitorscompetitoropponents, and progressively formal methodologies through in-depthin profundity interviews, center gatherings, projective techniques, contextual analyses or pilot considers (Yin, 1994). Logical This is an exploration type in which the essential goalobjective is to comprehend the naturetemperament or systems of the connection between the free and ward variable. This methodology is utilized when its is important to show that one variable causescauses or decides closes the estimation of other variable. This exploration is acceptable to utilize when there is no clearunambiguous worry about what model that ought to be utilized and what characteristics and relations that is importantsignificant (Zikmund, 1994). Engaging Engaging exploration is utilized to obtainget data concerning the currentpresent status of the wonders to describeexplain what exists as for factors or conditions in a situationstate. Spellbinding exploration is utilized when the objectivegoal is to give an orderly portrayal defination that is as real and accurateexact as could be expected under the circumstances or when the issue is well structuredordered and there is no intentionobjective to investigatestudy cause/impact connection. It provideprovidess you the quantity of occurrencestimes something occurshappens, or recurrence, loans drives itself to factual calculationscalculationcomputation, for example, deciding figuring the normal number of events or focal propensities (Yin, 1994). One of its significant limitationsrestrictions is that it can not help determineconclude what causes a particular event, conduct, or inspiration or event. We can say thatIn different words, it can't establishcreate a causal examination relationship betweenamong factors. My examination reason and examination question uncover that this investigation is mainlyfor the most part exploratory. It is exploratory on the grounds that the information has been gathered through polls and unstructured meetings and surveys to investigate the issues that impact Pakistani people group expectations to embrace Internet banking administrations. Exploration Approach There are two essential sorts of exploration draws near, subjective and quantitative. In the quantitative methodology, resultsoutcomes depend on numbers and insights and numbers that are introduced in figures, while in the subjective methodology where spotlight lies on portraying an eventoccurrence with the utilization of words. Despite the fact that this examination on selection of Internet banking administrations reception in Pakistan isn't broad when contrasted with discussiondebate of the advantages, the vast majority of the ideas in this investigation have been occasionallyrarely analyzed previously, yet mostlygenerally in the western setting. Just a littleslight research covers typically Singapore, Hong Kong or China, which are exceptionally evolved economies and not representativeenvoys of every Asian nation. Thusso to increase further comprehension of the issues in the Pakistani setting, this exploration is led as a subjective report to investigate the view of web banking in Pakistani people group. The Usinge of this methodology gives more extravagant and legal detailsparticulars to investigating perspectives in the beginning time of examination. Thus the aimintend isn't to make any rearrangements, yet rather establishset up a closer contact with the targets of priorpreceding research, which intendhave it as a main priority to give us a more profound comprehension of the members perspectives and recognitions. At long last my intentionobjective with this exploration is to depict, and investigate, and find total and nitty gritty data about the issues of Internet banking reception in Pakistan, so quantitative subjective methodology is the most reasonable technique for my examination. Examination Strategy Examination methodology is a generalbroad plan which shows that where wayhow this exploration will go on, and how analyst individual will addresses the inquiries that has been set by the individual directing the scientist. It will containhave clear destinations, got from research question that determine the source from which scientist individual intendbe going to gather information and consider the constraintsconstraintlimitations that exploration peopleers will unavoidably have, for example, access to information like , time, area and cash, moral issues (saunders, 2000). Subjective exploration can be conductedconductcarried out utilizing severalquite a couple of techniques including: contextual investigation, tests, overviews, narratives, and examination of recorded data (Yin, 1994). Following are the short descriptionexplanation of over five examination methodologies: Contextual analysis Contextual analysis alludes to the assortment and introduction of detailedthorough data about a particularspecific member or little gathering of members. A contextual analysis is a composed descriptionexplanation of an issue or circumstance and typicallynormally inspects the transaction of all factors all together tofor providinge ass complete a comprehension of an occasion or circumstance as could reasonably be expected. Contextual analysis is preferredideal when the specialist has littleslight power over the occasions, and when there is a contemporaryup to date center inside a genuine setting. The purposerationale of a contextual investigation is to put members in the job of leaders, asking them to distinguishdifferentiate applicable from insignificant realities, to recognize focal choices among severalnumerous issues going after consideration, and to formulateprepare systems and strategy suggestions (Yin, 1994). Trials The exploratory strategy includes controlling one variable to determinedecide if changes in a single variable causeground changes in another variable. This technique reliesdepends on controlled strategies, arbitrary task, and the control of factors to test a theory. This procedure is utilized when the scientist individual need to comparecontrast two factors and analyze their circumstances and logical results connections (Malhorta, 1996). Review Its an exploration strategy where data is collectinged by interviews with a largehuge number of respondents utilizing a pre-structured survey (Zikmund, 1994). This exploration method has three significant qualities: Reason: The motivation behind study research is to produce quantitative portrayals of certain qualities of the populace in study. Study examination might be for the most part related either with relationship between factors or with anticipating results graphically to a pre-characterized populace (Yin, 1994). Fundamentally Survey research is a quantitative methodology, calling for normalized data about or potentially from the subjects being contemplated. The subjects under examination may be people, gatherings, associations or networks; they likewise may be activities, applications, or frameworks. Method: The most significant method of gathering data is by bringing up individuals organized and predefined issues. Answers of inquiries given by individuals, which may allude to themselves or some other unit of examination, includes the information to be dissected (Yin, 1994). Examinations: Information is typically gathered about just a segment of the populace under investigation, yet data is gathered so as to have the option to take a wide view the entire populace. As a rule, the example is sufficiently enormous to permit expansive factual investigations. History This strategy is manages the past, and is in utilized when none of the relevantconcerning people are alive to meeting or report (Yin, 1994). This strategy is specificallyspecially used to depict the substance, structure and capacity of the information which gathered for the examination. Investigation of Archival Information The reason for this techniquemethod is to describeexplain the occurrence or prevalencepervasiveness of a wonder (Zikmund, 1994). The utilization of the authentic data is troublesome when this point is coming examination zone. The accompanying table displaysdisplaydemonstrates the conditions that should be tended to while determiningshaping on a methodology. Most importantsignificantconsiderable condition for choosing research procedure is to identifycategorize the kind of examination question being inquired. In light of the examination question what that I set for this exploration, I have decided to follow contextual investigation and review research technique, since this exploration isn't dependentreliant on a solitary basic, extraordinary, uniqueexclusive or impactful case. Test Selection Examining is an overview based exploration where analyst people needs to break down the example about a populace toin request to respond to the examination questions or meetmeetsfulfill meet the examination targets (Saunders, 2000). When the issue has been carefullyvigilantly characterized, the scientist individual needs to establishset up the example that will outlinesketch out the examination to be completed. It is vital for specialist individual to unmistakably characterize the objective populace from whom the particular example will be taken. Examining is importantsignificant if spending cost and time limitations preventstops research from reviewing the whole populace. Test gives more elevated level of exactness and quick precise outcome. Once in a while, the entire populace will be adequatelysufficiently little, and the exploration individual can assess the whole populace in the investigation. This sort of examination is named an evaluation concentrate since information is coll

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Effects of the Social Networking Sites to the Study Habits of the 4th year High School Students Essay

Part 1 Presentation These days, innovation is as of now assuming control over the world. They use innovation in various manners. It is a major assistance particularly in conveying. Long range informal communication destinations are results of innovation and furthermore one method of speaking with one another. Everybody is attached to utilizing interpersonal interaction destinations. They think about it as a piece of our every day lives. They love sharing pictures, communicating our emotions and musings, and blogging about new things. Nearly everybody utilizes Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and some more. They appreciate utilizing them particularly young people. They share nearly all that they do and express their inferred musings, thoughts and feelings. Be that as it may, does their compulsion in utilizing these long range interpersonal communication destinations despite everything benefits them? They can say that long range interpersonal communication locales are acceptable innovations as far as interfacing and mingling however young people who are partial to utilizing these can’t appear to get enough. Some of them or MOST of them positively utilize these sometimes. It is extremely amusing that they despite everything have the opportunity to partake in long range informal communication locales that they have huge amounts of home works and tests rather than simply investing their energy in considering and doing their school works. For the fourth year understudies, they truly need to make some great memories the executives since they have to suggest the prerequisites they are committed to do so as to move on from secondary school. They should be dependable in partitioning our time in numerous things however why that they can e ven now discover time to utilize these long range informal communication destinations? Do these informal communication destinations as of now influence their investigation propensities? Theâ researchers need to know whether these long range interpersonal communication destinations influence the investigation propensities for the fourth year understudies and how might they keep up great examination propensities without being diverted. We additionally needed to know whether these interpersonal interaction locales can help them in their method of considering. This investigation is led to know the great and awful impacts of long range informal communication destinations to the understudies and to realize how to improve and forestall it. Foundation of the Problem One of the commitments of the youngsters is to examine. Their job is to turn into a dedicated understudy and a decent youngster to their folks. As understudies, they are required to give their best in their examinations to have passing marks. Their folks give each exertion they can provide for send their youngsters in school with a top notch instruction. These days, there are a great deal of routes in improving the method of teaching the understudies. Innovation is one of those. Innovation like web can assist with widening the information on an understudy and makes it simpler for them to concentrate however innovation can likewise be an explanation behind the understudies to restrict their insight in what they can get from here. Web is the best and least demanding commitment of innovation as far as imparting, exploring and examining. These in only a single tick. Web can't just assistance the understudies in doing their home works and looks into yet in addition in conveying and mingling. There are a great deal of sites utilized by the young people to mingle. These sites are called Social systems administration locales. In these locales, they can talk with their companions and offer photographs and considerations with them. These locales are likewise utilized in publicizing items that can be valuable for the understudies. These locales are a decent creation however they additionally have hindrances to the individuals particularly to the understudies. Great examination propensities are significant in keeping up passing marks in school however understudies will in general abuse these long range interpersonal communication locales which limit their time in considering. They were relied upon to invest more energy in concentrating but since of these long range informal communication destinations they will in general be occupied. They invested the vast majority of their energy in utilizing their long range interpersonal communication destinations and decrease their time in contemplating. As time passes by, the circumstances are deteriorating. There may go to a point where understudies will simply utilize their long range informal communication locales as opposed to considering which may prompt a more concerning issue like influencing their evaluations and method of learning. It might cause theirâ laziness and rebelliousness in their subjects. These issues may prompt the awful scholastic exhibition. Explanation of the Problem The specialist fundamentally planned to know how the systems administration destinations influence the examination propensities for the fourth year understudies in Divine Light Academy. This investigation is purposively directed to know the points of interest and inconveniences of the long range interpersonal communication destinations to the graduating understudies and their method of examining. In particular, this investigation should address the accompanying inquiries: 1. Previously, understudies used to think with there concentrates yet since long range interpersonal communication locales are developed, how can they invest their energy regarding examining? 2. The understudies are attached to utilizing the web to achieve their school works effectively however web additionally permits them to utilize person to person communication destinations, Can they concentrate with their school works while utilizing informal communication locales simultaneously? 3. Great examination propensities are kept up by the understudies with the feeling of control and great time the executives shockingly, they became fanatics of interpersonal interaction locales would they be able to at present have great investigation propensities notwithstanding of their persistent utilization of person to person communication destinations? Speculation Invalid Hypothesis 1. The fourth year understudies of Divine Light Academy are investing such a great amount of energy in utilizing long range informal communication destinations. 2. They invest less energy in contemplating. 3. They have poor investigation propensities and time the board. Operational Hypothesis 1. The fourth year understudies of Divine Light Academy invest less energy in considering when they are utilizing person to person communication locales 2. They are utilized of getting their work done and examines while utilizing their long range informal communication locales. 3. They can’t concentrate when they are utilizing long range informal communication locales while examining and they can have better examination propensities without these destinations Conceptual Framework Fig.1 Effects of the Social Networking Sites to the Study Habit Input * How understudies invest their energy every day in wording of Studying and Using Social systems administration locales? * Do they utilize long range interpersonal communication destinations while doing assignments, particularly when doing looks into? * Can they pack in getting their work done without keeping an eye on their web journals or different locales? * In what way would they be able to keep up great examination propensities? With the utilization of long range interpersonal communication locales or without the utilization of long range interpersonal communication locales? * What do they do first once they open a PC to do an exploration or schoolwork? Procedure * Observing their presentation in class and in the event that they can go along to the prerequisites * required in their subjects. * Asking about their investigation propensities and their utilization of person to person communication locales. * Interviewing them about their day by day schedule and their method of adjusting their studiesand their utilization of long range interpersonal communication locales. * Giving surveys to the respondents to accumulate information. Yield * By essentially watching, the analyst will know whether the student’s execution is fulfilling or not. * By getting some information about their investigation propensities, the scientist will know the motivation behind why their class execution is fulfilling or not. * They would feel and realize that they have to * improve their examination propensities and stay away from or diminish the interruption. * The absence of study propensities can be change with * the polls that are given to them. Meaning of Terms 1. Scholarly Performance-the reason for your general evaluations. 2. Blogging-is a method of sharing remarks, conclusions or articles in web 3. Conveying is to bestow; to uncover or to share 4. Day by day Routine-is a lot of things you do in your regular day to day existence. 5. Instruction is the efficient preparing of good and scholarly resources. 6. Facebook-is a person to person communication site wherein you can include new companions, talk and offer pictures and remarks. 7. Instagram-is a long range informal communication site wherein you can share any photograph and video you need. 8. Jobs is the capacity or part. 9. Long range informal communication destinations are the sites wherein you can associate with others. 10. Mingling is to render socially 11. Understudies the recipients and the ones who assimilate all the things that the instructors are instructing. 12. Study propensities is the demonstration of securing information or use of the brain in a typical or standard time. 13. Young people youth with somewhere in the range of 13 and 19 said old enough. 14. Time Management-this is the expertise to deal with your opportunity to complete the things that you needed to achieve. 15. Tumblr-a person to person communication webpage wherein you can blog any photograph, video, cites or even an article about any subject you need. 16. Twitter-you can share or tweet (as what term utilized in that site) about anything utilizing 140 characters in particular. 17. Sites the pages you utilized when your utilizing web Hypothetical Framework Previously, understudies used to think with there concentrates however since long range informal communication destinations are designed their time is isolated in utilizing person to person communication locales and concentrating every day. They may invest more energy in utilizing informal communication locales than contemplating or they may do it the opposite way around. The understudies are enamored with utilizing the web to achieve their school works effectively however web additionally permits them to utilize person to person communication locales while doing their assignments and when they’re doing investigates. Would they be able to complete their school works without checking their online journals or different destinations? Great examination propensities are kept up by the understudies with the feeling of order and great time the board tragically, they became devotees of informal communication locales would they be able to in any case have great investigation propensiti es notwithstanding of their constant utilization of long range interpersonal communication destinations? By watching and getting some information about their investigations and day by day schedule, we can know whether their examinations are influenced by their dependence of person to person communication locales. We can watch on the off chance that they are doing admirably in their group and on the off chance that they can think to their examinations without being diverted. By basically watching, the analyst will know whether the student’s execution is fulfilling or not. The analyst can decipher the d

Thursday, August 6, 2020

23 Of The Best Divorce Books For Healing, Support, And Guidance

23 Of The Best Divorce Books For Healing, Support, And Guidance Youve done therapy, youve (hopefully) talked about your feelings together. Your relationship is over, one way or another, and theres only one thing left to deal with: your marriage. Amicable or not, youll need to cut those ties that bind before you get  on with living your best life. For that, youll need some sage advice from the best divorce books out there. Heres a reading list to get you started. (Afterward, head over and check out our best feminist divorcée reads!) Most of the divorce literature out there seems to be geared toward women. Furthermore, it appears to be dominated by white authors writing to the concerns of white communities. While I only found a few authors of color writing about this topic, I hope there are more. I included those that I could find on this list. Likewise, theres almost nothing current about LGBTQ divorce. Im going to go ahead and assume that its just because were so blamed awesome. Otherwise, it means that same-sex marriage hasnt been legal long enough to spawn a niche rainbow divorce industry. These books are all geared toward adults whose relationship has dissolved, is dissolving, or really ought to dissolve. If you need to talk to kids about divorce, we have a reading list for that, too. Teens might want to read on their own. Weve got that covered, too. Divorce Books With Guidance and Advice 1. The African-American Guide to Divorce Drama: Breaking Up Without Breaking Down  by Lester L. Barclay The author of this book is a matrimonial lawyer. He covers the particular considerations of divorce in the Black community, including social, familial, personal, and legal aspects. 2. The Breakup Bible: The Smart Womans Guide to Healing from a Breakup or Divorce  by Rachel Sussman This book, authored by a mental health counselor, provides you with resources for moving past your divorce emotionally. That said, it also touches upon topics like co-parenting with your ex in an emotionally healthy way. Its most helpful if you were the dumpee rather than the dumper. 3. Conscious Uncoupling: 5 Steps to Living Happily Even After  by Katherine Woodward Thomas A lot of books about emotionally handling divorce focus on women. Not this book! There are pearls of wisdom here for everybody. Its particularly good at helping you identify your relationship patterns. Like our previous book, this one stresses the well-being of any children that you and your ex might have together. 4. Fair Share Divorce for Women: The Definitive Guide to Creating a Winning Solution  by Kathleen A. Miller Lets face it: your divorce is going to get financially sticky. This book contains some solid advice from a CPA who knows her way around a settlement. As the title suggests, this book is most relevant to women. 5. Getting Past Your Breakup: How to Turn a Devastating Loss into the Best Thing That Ever Happened to You by Susan J. Elliott If youve ever been in a breakup before, then you already know how hard it is to stop texting, calling, and otherwise contacting the person in whose life you were intimately entangled. If youre struggling to detach, Susan Elliot might have some good advice for you. 6. Its Called A Breakup Because Its Broken: The Smart Girls Break-Up Buddy by Greg Behrendt and Amiira Ruotola The author of Hes Just Not That Into You and his wife want you to throw that pity party. Feel your feelings! Then, seek clarity about your relationship and its true relationship to your happiness. Not everything needs to be fixed. Theres some tough love here, but funny anecdotes take the sting out. 7. Sacred Cows: The Truth About Divorce and Marriage by Danielle Teller and Astro Teller There are a lot of myths about divorce out there. The Tellers, a married pair themselves, explode a lot of them in this book. A playful tone lightens the heavy subject matter somewhat. 8. Splitting: Protecting Yourself While Divorcing Someone with Borderline or Narcissistic Personality Disorder  by Randi Kreger and Bill Eddy Whether or not your ex has been formally diagnosed, this book has some good advice for breaking up with high-conflict people. If you worry about your spouses reaction to a divorce request, this might be a good book to review before you broach the subject. 9. The Storms Cant Hurt the Sky: The Buddhist Path through Divorce by Gabriel Cohen Mixing memoir with advice, this is a unique guide to spiritual balance during tough times. Bonus: Cohen recommends several other useful books about Buddhism for readers who want to explore further. 10. Too Good to Leave, Too Bad to Stay: A Step-by-Step Guide to Help You Decide Whether to Stay In or Get Out of Your Relationship by Mira Kirschenbaum Its not unusual to teeter on the brink of divorce, sometimes for years. If this is your situation, do yourself the favor of reading this book. Its a neutral tool for relationship assessment, but can give you the validation you need to make a decision if youre wavering. 11. Uncoupling: How to Survive and Thrive After Breakup and Divorce by Sara Davison Heres a book that will normalize the many challenges of divorce for people who are feeling unsure about whats normal. Davison is a life coach who draws in part upon her own divorce for reference. Divorce Books About Parenting 12. Parenting through Divorce: Helping Your Children Thrive During and After the Split  by Lisa Rene Reynolds, PhD There are a few reactions that you can probably expect from your kids when you announce your divorce. The object of this book is to prepare you to handle those in a healthy way. 13. A Parents Guide to Divorce: How to Raise Happy, Resilient Kids Through Turbulent Times  by Karen Becker Addressing the needs of all age groups, this book is particularly good at addressing specifics. For example, it gives good tips about handling holidays. 14. Talking to Children About Divorce: A Parents Guide to Healthy Communication at Each Stage of Divorce by Jean McBride Any parent who is in the process of divorcing needs to be ready to field questions and head off misconceptions that their kids might or might not voice. A lot of the communication advice in this book could also apply to other difficult conversations. Divorce Memoirs 15. Aftermath: On Marriage and Separation by Rachel Cusk Cusk struggled when her marriage of ten years fell apart. She presents herself with all of her flaws intact in this memoir of divorce and motherhood. 16. A Beautiful, Terrible Thing by Jen Waite Upon discovering that her husband has been massively unfaithful, Waite embarks upon the difficult process of emotionally recovering and escaping from her marriage. 17. Falling Apart in One Piece: One Optimists Journey Through the Hell of Divorce by Stacy Morrison Morrisons husband walked out when she least expected it, leaving her with a new house, a new baby, and a new perspective on life. 18. Happens Every Day: An All-Too-True Story  by Isabel Gillies With candid honesty, Gillies discusses the sacrifices she made for a marriage that quickly fell apart. This book avoids self-pity in favor of mindful positivity. 19. How Divorce Became My Deliverance, edited by Elona Washington This collection of essays by divorced Black women offers a positive long view on separation. Its an encouraging collection edited by a prominent publisher and guest blogger for Huffpost. 20. How to Sleep Alone in a King-Size Bed: A Memoir of Starting Over by Theo Pauline Nestor Divorce pushed Nestor out of her stable middle-class existence and into single motherhood. After throwing out her gambling-addicted husband, she finds the way forward by exploring her familys past, while keeping her children foremost in her mind. 21. I Am Nujood, Age 10 And Divorced by Nujood Ali Nujoods experience departs significantly from the others on this list. A child bride to an abuser in Yemen, she obtained her freedom after a heartbreaking struggle. 22. Split: A Memoir Of Divorce by Suzanne Finnamore Ignoring signs of her husbands infidelity didnt save Finnamores marriage. However, moving on from her subsequent divorce did make her a stronger person. 23. Were Still Family: What Grown Children Have to Say About Their Parents Divorce  by Constance Ahrons The specter of ruined childhood haunts many divorcees, but it might not be entirely valid. This collection of short essays by the children of divorce suggests not only that positive outcomes are possible, but that kids can join their parents in moving through divorce resiliently. Hit the comments to share your picks for the best divorce books.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Legalization Of Prostitution The United States From The...

Prostitution has underlyingly lingered in the history of the United States from the beginning of English settlements. In the industrial times, five percent of the population of women working were prostitutes. During the migration to the West, prostitutes were the majority- if not the only women in boom towns. Not until 1875, were there any laws officially banning prostitution. The Page law was created when Chinese immigrant women become prostitutes or second wives to European men. The law banned immigrant women from immoral purposes. Moving further in time, in 1949, a United Nations convention met in the purpose for the decriminalization of prostitution. Forty-eight countries decided to endorse it, the United States voted against it. Sex workers are fighters. They aren t young girls begging in a freezing Dickensian fog; they aren t Pretty Women looking for Prince Charming; they aren t victimized teenage runaways exploited by savage pimps; they don t have golden hearts; and they aren t crack hos neglecting their babies to find a fix. They aren t American or Jamaican gigolos looking to fleece middle-aged women or gay hustlers cruising for sugar daddies. And some sex workers may look like these stereotypes, yet they are fighters too.† (Chateauvert 1). In our lifetime we have seen those fight for gay marriage and legalization of marijuana. Despite the controversy and personal moral issues, prostitution should also be legalized in the United States. Just as MarijuanaShow MoreRelatedGlobalization and Indigenous Peoples2929 Words   |  12 Pagesindigenous people, but generally indigenous people are those that have historically belonged to a particular region or country, before its colonization or transformation into a nation state. They often have distinct cultural, linguistic, traditional, and other characteristics to those of the dominant culture of that region or state. There are approximately 370 million indigenous people among 70 countries, worldwide. It is about 6% of the world population. These indigenous people are predominantly subsistence-basedRead MoreAmerican Civil Rights Movement Essay15820 Words   |  64 Pagesmelodramas, he shot comedies, historical films, thrillers, westerns, filmings of Bible and different works of literature. Before 1913 there existed an opinion, that the spectator can not watch the film longer than 15 minutes. He shot a film Yudif from Betulia in 4 parts. It lasted 42 minutes. There was a great scandal at the studio because of this film duration, after it Griffith left American Biography and began his work at full-length film Birth of Nation. It appeared on screens in 1915.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Awareness and Adoption of E Banking in Pakistan Free Essays

Abstract: This study aims to understand customers’ perception towards adoption and awareness of electronic banking in Pakistan. The outcomes would help the policy makers to develop effective strategies for future outlook of electronic banking in a country. The results suggest that banks’ customers in Pakistan perceive electronic banking as a tool for minimizing inconvenience, minimizing risk of carrying cash and time saving. We will write a custom essay sample on Awareness and Adoption of E Banking in Pakistan or any similar topic only for you Order Now Customers further believe that electronic banking increases chances of government access to public data, increases chances of fraud and data losses. It reduces cost and save our precious time. There are also some limitations of e-banking as it requires skills to operate it and passwords can be hacked. This research paper discussed that people of Pakistan are well aware of electronic banking but they are not satisfied with the services provided by the bank and they also feel risk in that service that’s why they trust more on employees. It contains different demographics and their association with research questions. The results conclude that various customers segments do not differ in opinions towards benefits and risks associated with e-banking. This paper also includes recommendations in which it describes that what strategies the banks should choose to increase the satisfaction of customers Keywords: electronic banking; e-banking; customers’ perception; adoption; Pakistan, e-banking in Pakistan, e-banking, SMS banking, ATM I. INTRODUCTION The developments taking place in information and communication technology are increasing competition in financial institutions worldwide. Development of electronic distribution channels in financial industry has completely transformed the traditional bank–customer relationship in recent years. It has reduced personal contacts between the service providers and the customers (Barnes and Howlett, 1998). The scenario is further changed with increased competition among banks and non-bank financial institutions (Zineldin, 1996). Thus an enhanced understanding of why some people adopt one distributional channel and others do not, alongside an identification of the factors that may influence this decision is vital to investigate (Patricio, 2003). Thus, the deployment of advanced technologies is essential to achieve a competitive edge. In the world of banking, the development of information technology has an enormous effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more-user friendly banking services. Recently, the banking industry was highly affected by the technology evolution that transformed the way banks deliver their services, using technologies such as automated teller machines, phones, the Internet, credit cards, and electronic cash. In line with global trends, electronic banking in Pakistan has been undergoing many changes. Electronic banking is a term for the process by which a customer may perform banking transactions electronically without visiting a brick-and-mortar institution. Electronic banking refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer (PC) or other intelligent device. There are many benefits of e-banking as it provides easy way to monitor an account, we can shop, pay bills, buy items at auction, and transfer money from anywhere at any time, it reduces costs, it saves time, and vice versa. Objectives This study focuses on awareness and adoption of electronic banking in Pakistan. Our objectives of this research were to: 1. Check awareness of electronic banking in Pakistan. 2. Check why people are not aware of electronic banking. 3. Know if the people are aware of electronic banking then to how much extent. 4. Check whether banks of Pakistan are providing electronic banking or not. 5. To find the critical attributes that customers expect important while using electronic banking. 6. To find the key variables that affect customers’ evaluations towards risk associated with electronic banking. 7. To understand the relationship between demographic characteristics of customers and their perceptions towards electronic banking. 8. To present results and implications which are insightful to researchers and banks interested in electronic banking. This research is important because it tells bankers that how much people in Pakistan are aware of and adopt the electronic banking and to how much extend. It also tells them to improve their e-banking services in Pakistan. Electronic banking in Pakistan State-owned banks dominated the Pakistani financial market before 1990. The government introduced economic liberalization policies in 1991 when two smaller banks, Muslim Commercial Bank and Allied Bank were privatized. Since then, the government continuously advocated the privatization of existing state-owned enterprises and encouraged the private and foreign banks to setup their businesses in the country. Recent acquisition of locally owned Union Bank by Standard Chartered Bank indicates foreign interest in domestic financial market. According to State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) annual report (2005), there were 35 commercial banks, including 16 private banks (with 797 branches), 11 foreign banks (with 82 branches), 4 privatized banks (with 4,141 branches) and 4 public banks (with 1,543 branches), respectively. Electronic banking is an innovation in the series of technological wonders. Automated teller machine (ATM), telephone banking, internet banking, credit cards and debit cards, etc. have emerged as effective delivery channels for traditional banking products. In Pakistan, foreign banks took a lead by introducing ATM and credit cards in mid-1990s followed by domestic banks in late 1990s. Annual Report of SBP (2003, p. 110) explained this delay in electronic banking largely by regulatory hurdles, higher startup costs, an ongoing banking sectors reforms and lack of technical skills. The government also introduced Electronic Transaction Ordinance in 2002. This ordinance provides legal recognition to digital signatures and documentation. Thus reducing the risks associated with the use of electronic medium of business. At present, almost all commercial banks in Pakistan have setup their ATM networks, issuing debit and credit cards and have joined one of the two operating ATM Switch Networks. According to Kolachi (2006) Pakistani banks provide the following online banking services and products. 1. Enquiry, account statement enquiry, account balance enquiry, check statement enquiry, fixed deposit enquiry 2. Payment, funds transfer, credit card payments, direct payments, utility bills payments 3. Request, checkbook request, stop payment request, demand draft request, new fixed deposit request 4. Download, customer profile, statement download, other information and guidelines downloads. 4 Literature review Consumers’ perceptions towards adoption of electronic banking have attracted many researchers in recent years. Thornton and White (2001) who compared seven distribution electronic channels available for banks in US concluded that customers’ orientation such as convenience, service, technology change, knowledge about computing and availability of internet affected the usage of different channels. According to Hagel and Hewlin (1997) the Internet banking became very attractive to customers and lots of banks because the technology is being accepted by them and they can now understand and have information about the complex products. Nowadays banks are also facing a lot of competition and need a high market share and provide better services to its customers so that they can attract the new customers and old customers do not try to leave them. Howcroft et al. 2002) found that the most important factors that have encouraged consumers to use online banking are lower fees followed by reducing paper work and human error which subsequently minimize the human disputes (Kiang et al. , 2000). Byers and Lederer, (2001 ) concluded that it was changing consumer attitudes rather than bank cost structures that determines the changes in distribution channels; they added that virtual banks can only be profitable when the segment that prefers electronic media is approximately twice the size of th e segment preferring street banks. Decrease in percentage of customers visiting banks with an increase in alternative channels of distribution will also minimize the queues in branches (Thornton and White, 2001). Internet banking increases power of the customers to make price comparison across suppliers quickly and easily, which subsequently pushes the price and margins downwards (Devlin, 1995). Although, electronic banking provides many opportunities for the banks, it is also the case that the current banking services provided through Internet are limited due to security concerns, complexity and technological problems (Sathye, 1999: Mols, 1999). Risks associated to electronic banking Although internet provides many opportunities for banks but it is the case that current banking services through internet are limited due to security concerns, complexity and technological problems (Mols, 1999; Sathye, 1999). Hewer and Howcroft (1999) referred the term trust to measure a risk. While, Suganthi et al. (2001) viewed risk in context of security concerns and risk in context of trust in one’s bank. Finally, a number of studies also found trust and perceived risks have a significant positive influence on ommitment (Bhattacherjee, 2002; Mukherjee and Nath, 2003) and ultimately leads towards overall satisfaction (Rexha et al. , 2003). Reputation of a service provider is another important factor affecting trust. Doney and Cannon (1997) defined reputation as the extent to which customers believe a supplier or service provider is honest and concern about its customers. Tyler and Stanley (1999) argued that banks can build close and lo ng-lasting relationship with customers only if trust, commitment, honesty and cooperation are developed between them. Nancy et al. 2001) study found that customers’ complaint about computer logon time which are usually longer than making a telephone call. Further, the respondents felt that they have to check and recheck the forms filled online, as they are worried about making mistakes. Frequent slow response time and delay of service delivery causes customers to be unsure about the completion of a transaction (Jun and Cai, 2001). Min and Galle (1999) found crashes in operating systems and disruption of information access as common factors related to unwillingness to use internet channels for commerce. Liao and Cheung (2002) found that individual expectations regarding accuracy, security, transaction speed, user friendliness, user involvement and convenience are the most important attributes in the perceived usefulness of internet-based e-retail banking. Confidentiality of consumer data is another important concern in adoption of online banking (Gerrad and Cunningham, 2003). Customers fear about someone’s unlimited access to personal financial information. White and Nteli (2004) focused on why the internet usage has not been increased in UK as compared to internet usage for banking purposes? Results found that the customers still have concerns about the security and safety aspects of the internet. Lack of internet accessibility and a provision of documentary evidence for all transactions are found important hurdles in the development of electronic banking in Thailand (Jaruwachirathanakul and Fink, 2005). Laforet and Li (2005) found that habit of carrying cash, less accessibility of internet and documentary proof of financial transaction as important hurdles in adoption, in case of China. Lack of specific laws to govern internet banking is another important concern for users. It covers issues such as unfair and deceptive trade practice by supplier, unauthorized access by hackers. Larpsiri et al. (2002) argued that it is not clear whether electronic documents and records are acceptable as sufficient evidence of transactions. Another issue is the jurisdiction of the courts and dispute resolution procedures in case of using internet for commercial purpose. Dispute can arise from many issues. For instance, websites is not branch of the bank. It is difficult for the court to define location of branch and decide whether they have jurisdiction (Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003). Other risks associated to electronic banking are job losses, lack of opportunities to socialize and development of lazy society were mentioned by (Black et al. , 2001). Demographic factors Gender alone is not a significant factor, affecting adoption of technology in general (Gefen and Straub, 1997). However, Kolodinsk et al. (2004) found that married couples are more likely to adopt the new technology than either single males or females. Research has also linked age and adoption of technology, as young people are more likely to adopt technology (Lee et al. , 2002). Maturity in population in terms of knowledge, confidence and comfort in computer usage also increase influence towards online banking (Karjaluoto et al. , 2002). Increase in income and education have found positive effects on adoption (Lockett and Littler, 1997; Sarel and Marmorstein, 2003). Mattilia et al. (2003) indicated that young, educated and wealthy consumers are most likely to adopt internet banking in Finland. Mature customers prefer personal service and a printed receipt of their transactions. Mature customers also perceive internet banking to be more costly than paying bills over the counter. Methodology The study was conducted in Lahore city which is the second largest city of Pakistan and represents almost 20% of all branches network. Branches for survey were selected on convenience basis but after the permission of respective branch managers. Survey covered both residential and commercial areas. In this research data is conducted by using questionnaire as a data collection instrument, in which questions were asked starting from their command on computer and internet usage, following with the awareness of electronic banking and its types, about the benefits of e-banking and then some questions regarding their bank services and the security provide by these banks. The questionnaire includes close-ended questions and they were on liker scale of utilizing a five point categorical. IV. EMPIRICAL RESULTS There is â€Å"table † which shows gender wise association with research questions No. Question| Gender| | Total| P – values| | | | Male| Female| | | | | | | | | | | 1| Aware of electronic banking| 196| 200| 396| 0. 011| | 2| Your bank provides electronic banking facility| 190| 195| 385| 0. 000| | | | | | | | | 3| Aware of SMS banking| 196| 195| 391| 0. 036| | | | | | | | | 4| Aware of INTERNET banking| 189| 198| 387| 0. 010| | | | | | | | | 5| Aware of ATM card usag e| 193| 198| 391| 0. 054| | | | | | | | | 6| Aware of PHONE banking| 193| 199| 392| 0. 272| | | | | | | | | 7| Satisfied with the E-banking services provided by| | | | | | | bank| 192| 198| 390| 0. 08| | | | | | | | | 8| Satisfied with the security of E-banking provide by| | | | | | | bank| 191| 195| 386| 0. 068| | | | | | | | | 9| Want to use e-banking facilities in future| 194| 197| 391| 0. 000| | | | | | | | | Table shows the different questions and their association with gender. First question is about awareness of electronic banking. Total respondents who answered this question were 396 in which 196 were male respondents and 200 were female respondents. Its result shows that awareness of electronic banking is dependent on gender. Next question was answered by 385 total respondents from which the amount of male and female were 190 and 195 respectively. Its results show that providing e-banking services by banks were highly dependent on gender. Third one is about awareness of SMS banking which was answered by 196 male and 195 female respondents. Its result shows that awareness of SMS banking is also dependent on gender. Now the next question is about Internet banking awareness which was answered by 189 male respondents and 198 female respondents and its result shows that awareness of internet banking is dependent on gender. Next question is about awareness of ATM card usage. Total 391 respondents answered that question from which the amount of male and female were 193 and 198 respectively. It results shows that awareness of ATM card usage is not dependent on gender. Now there is a question about Phone banking awareness so total 392 respondents answered that question from which 193 were male and 199 were female and its result shows that phone banking awareness is not dependent on gender. Now the seventh question was asked by respondents about their satisfaction about e-banking services providing by their banks and total 390 answered that question and its result shows that satisfaction about e-banking services providing by banks is depends on gender. Now there is second last question which was answered by 191 male and 195 female respondents and its result shows that satisfaction about security of e- banking providing by banks is not depends on gender. Last question is about the using e-banking service in future and its results are highly dependent on gender. | | Aware of electronic banking| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | strongly| | | | | | | | | disagree| disagree| neutral| agree| strongly agree| Total| | Gender| Male| 13| 28| 46| 64| 45| 196| | | | | | | | | | | | Female| 31| 32| 53| 57| 27| 200| | Total| | 44| 60| 99| 121| 72| 396| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Now there is a table which shows the description of the question, â€Å"Aware of electronic banking †. It shows the amount of respondents from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The highest figures of people are agreed about awareness of e-banking. In male respondents 64 were agree which is 33% of total male respondents. Likewise, in female respondents 57 were agreeing about it which is 29% of total females. | | | High| | | Post| | | | No. | Question| Primary| School| Secondary| Graduate| Graduate| Frequency| P-values| | 1| Aware of electronic banking| 8| 7| 10| 195| 164| 384| 0. 000| | | | | | | | | | | | 2| Use debit or credit cards for| | | | | | | | | | online transactions| 8| 6| 8| 191| 163| 376| 0. 008| | | | | | | | | | | | 3| Aware of ATM card usage| 8| 7| 10| 193| 163| 381| 0. 030| | | | | | | | | | | | | Aware of PHONE banking| 8| 7| 10| 194| 161| 380| 0. 155| | | | | | | | | | | | 5| Feel risk about hacking of| | | | | | | | | | passwords| 8| 7| 10| 192| 161| 378| 0. 555| | | | | | | | | | | | 6| Satisfied with the E-banking| | | | | | | | | | services provide by bank| 8| 7| 9| 191| 163| 378| 0. 269| | | | | | | | | | | | | More trust on the bank| | | | | | | | | 7| employees with communication| | | | | | | | | | tha n E-banking| 8| 7| 10| 191| 163| 379| 0. 680| | 8| Want to use e-banking facilities| | | | | | | | | | in future| 8| 7| 9| 192| 163| 379| 0. 69| | | | | | | | | | | | In this table there is a demographic of education whose relationship with research questions is given in above table. No. | | | | | | | | | Age| | | | | | | | Question| | | Below| 20 -| 30 -| 40 -| 50 -| Above| Frequency| P-values| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 19| 29| 39| | 49| 59| 60| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1| Have full command on computer| | 91| 241| 30| | 16| 10| 3| 391| 0. 034| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2| Involved in banking transactions| | 91| 239| 30| | 14| 14| 3| 391| 0| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Awareness of usefulness of| | | | | | | | | | | | | electronic banking| | | | 91| 238| 30| | 16| 14| 3| 392| 0. 004| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4| Your Banks provides online technical| | | | | | | | | | | | assistance or 24 helpline| | 88| 240| 30| | 16| 14| 3| 391| 0. 002| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5| Use debit or credit cards for online| | | | | | | | | | | | transactions| | | | 90| 237| 30| | 16| 14| 3| 390| 0| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 6| Aware of INTERNET banking| | 91| 238| 29| | 14| 14| 3| 389| 0. 443| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Aware of PHONE banking| | 91| 240| 30| | 16| 14| 3| 394| 0. 105| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 8| It provides| easy| way| to monitor| a| | | | | | | | | | | | account| | | | | 91| 242| 30| | 16| 14| 3| 396| 0. 019| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 9| Feel risk about hacking of passwords| 91| 239| 30| | 16| 13| 3| 392| 0. 089| | | | | | | | | | | | | | 10| Have easy access to ATM machine| | 88| 240| 30| | 16| 13| 3| 390| 0| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 11| Satisfied| with| the| E-banking| | | | | | | | | | | | services provide by bank| | 90| 240| 30| | 16| 13| 3| 392| 0. 47| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 12| Satisfied| with| the| security| of| | | | | | | | | | | | E-banking provide by bank| | 89| 239| 28| | 16| 13| 3| 388 | 0. 004| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 13| More trust on the bank employees| | | | | | | | | | | | with communication than E-banking| 90| 241| 30| | 16| 13| 3| 393| 0. 036| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Above table shows the relationship of research questions with age. In first question it is asked about command on computer. This question was answered by total 391 respondents from which from which 91 respondents had age less than 19. How to cite Awareness and Adoption of E Banking in Pakistan, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Eng 10 free essay sample

Although some grammar and mechanics may need to be reviewed in class, students will be encouraged to review grammar and mechanics independently and to use the handbook as a tool to correct their own writing.Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to: 1. Continue to demonstrate an understanding of the composition process: thinking, prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and proofreading. 2. Demonstrate proficiency in the process and conventions of research, 3. Demonstrate an ability to think critically and write analytically. 4. Demonstrate an awareness of language, an understanding of its precise diction, sentence variety, connotation, and abstract/concrete words. 5. Show skill as a critical reader. 6. Be able to state and support the theme of a literary work. 7. Be able to describe the work’s tone. 8. Be able to explain fictional character motivation. 9. Be able to identify essential elements that contribute to a work’s effectiveness. 10. Be able to understand and discuss syntax and style. We will write a custom essay sample on Eng 10 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 11. Gain independence as a writer, assuming responsibility for determining a suitable topic and choosing the proper voice, writing style, and rhetorical strategies for that paper. Class discussions *Group and collaborative work *Graphic organizers *Textbook and review of professional writings and literature *Portfolios *Journals *Practice writings *Lectures *Various and sundry activities designed to facilitate the reading and writing process. You may contact me at any time via the college’s e-mail system. My e-mail address is: [emailprotected] edu. Please use the regular STARS e-mail system. Please do not use the Blackboard portal e-mail. I try to arrive on campus at least 30 minutes before class starts, so if you need to communicate I am available then.